People with delayed sleep phase have a natural tendency to go to bed later and wake up later than what is typically considered normal. share. The Top 10 Pre-Workout Supplements for Muscle Gain, 7 Natural Treatments for Postpartum Swelling, Causes and Treatments for Postpartum Night Sweats, Debra Rose Wilson, PhD, MSN, RN, IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT, Reflections of Blackness: How to Curate a Space That Affirms Your Humanity. Of all, delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is the most commonly diagnosed, predominantly affecting adolescents, young adults, and insomnia patients. Accessed May 2, 2017. Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterised by habitual sleep-wake timing that is delayed, usually more than two hours, relative to conventional or socially acceptable timing. This drug does not treat the underlying cause of DSPS – it only improves the wakefulness of the person during daytime. Researchers studied the molecular mechanism of cryptochrome (CRY) 1, which lengthens circadian period to cause delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), and … Unless it’s interfering with daily activities, you may generally be getting enough quality sleep — it’s just delayed. DELAYED SLEEP PHASE DISORDER (DSPD), THE MOST COMMONLY DIAGNOSED FORM OF A CLASS OF DISORDERS KNOWN AS “CIRCADIAN RHYTHM SLEEP disorders” is characterized by delayed major sleep episodes, in relation to the desired clock time, typically by more than 2 hours and often by as much as 6 hours. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is one of many circadian rhythm sleeping disorders, and is the most prevalent of all such disorder… Novel implications for the treatment of delayed sleep-wake phase disorder. This content does not have an English version. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder r/ DSPD. Advanced Sleep-Phase Disorder (ASPD). Menschen, die an DSPS leiden, neigen dazu, zu einem späteren als dem gewünschten Zeitpunkt einzuschlafen. Here are the 10 best pre-workout…, Humans can detect 5 distinct types of taste. Last medically reviewed on March 26, 2019. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2017. A sleep specialist can do different tests to determine if you have DSPS. In other words, DPSD keeps us awake longer, delays waking in the morning and ultimately causes fatigue. Hot. In case you have DSPS, then you can not fall asleep in a socially acceptable bedtime. Accessed May 2, 2017. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 24, 2014. It’s also known as delayed sleep phase disorder or delayed sleep-wake phase disorder. It displaces or delays a person’s circadian rhythm, or body’s internal clock, by two or more hours, resulting in difficulty sleeping and waking up at times deemed appropriate by society.This then leads to sleep deprivation and excessive daytime sleepiness. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (or DSPS, for short) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder.. While the exact cause of DSPS isn’t known, it’s often associated with several factors. card classic compact. Sie haben infolgedesse… Posted by 5 hours ago. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a type of circadian rhythm sleep disorder. If you have DSPS, you can’t fall asleep at a socially acceptable bedtime. In: Behavioral Medicine: A Guide for Clinical Practice. This can be as late as 4AM. Accessed May 2, 2017. A polysomnography is a study or test done while you’re fully asleep to help identify any sleep disorders. Other factors like increased sensitivity or exposure to light at nighttime or decreased exposure to light in the morning may also play a role. You can’t fall asleep even when you’re tired. DSPS often continues into adulthood, so it needs to be actively treated. 12.0 Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD) 12.1 Diagnostic Issues 12.2 Risk Factors 12.2.1 Age 12.2.2 Gender 12.2.3 Reduced Light Exposure 12.2.4 Excessive Light Exposure 12.3 Assessment Tools 12.3.1 Sleep Logs 12.3.2 Actigraphy 12.3.3 Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire 12.3.4 Circadian Phase Markers 12.3.5 Polysomnography 12.4 Treatment 12.4.1 Prescribed Sleep Scheduling 12.4.2. It is unclear whether DSWPD in … Auger RR. Once sleep occurs, the sleep is generally normal. You’ll also wake up later than usual. All rights reserved. Your doctor will choose the best treatments for your symptoms and lifestyle. This delay occurs when one’s internal sleep clock (circadian rhythm) is shifted later at night and later in the morning. Treatment aims to change your body clock with bright light therapy, melatonin, and good sleep hygiene. 4th ed. Your doctor can explain the best way to keep treating DSPS. Can exercise regulate the circadian system of adolescents? You should also see a doctor if you have delayed sleep for at least seven days. A comprehensive assessment is necessary to reliably estimate the degree of circadian-phase delay and thus determine the most effective treatment (morning bright light or chronotherapy). Daytime drowsiness occurs when you can’t fall asleep but need to wake up at a certain time. DSPS isn’t the same as being a night owl. If you’re a night owl, you might purposely stay up to do homework or socialize. Sleep Medicine. Join. This delay is a result of the normal sleep pattern shifting to a later time. Accessed May 2, 2017. Golden AK. DSPS is a problem with your internal system clock. If you report problems falling asleep, you might be misdiagnosed with insomnia. This might include: Usually, a teen who has DSPS won’t grow out of it. Delayed sleep-wake phase syndrome or delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSPD) is a condition that dysregulates a person’s circadian rhythm or the internal biological clock. Delayed sleep phase — officially known as delayed sleep-wake phase sleep disorder — is an internal sleep clock (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder in which your sleep pattern is delayed two hours or more from a conventional sleep pattern, causing you to go to sleep later and wake up later. Patients with delayed sleep phase disorder are unable to fall asleep until very late at night, often after 2 am, and have difficulty getting up in the morning. Edema is common during pregnancy, but it can be a surprise after delivery. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a body clock disorder. If you have DSPS, you don’t choose to stay up late. See our safety precautions in response to COVID-19. Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder. Melatonin: Melatonin may also be the cause of delayed sleep phase syndrome. Sleep disorders. What is delayed sleep phase syndrome? This content does not have an Arabic version. What is Delayed sleep phase syndrome? Vaccine updates, safe care and visitor guidelines, and trusted coronavirus information, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, See our safety precautions in response to COVID-19, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter, New Year Special -  40% off – Mayo Clinic Diet Online. Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), also known as delayed sleep phase syndrome, is the most commonly diagnosed circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Das Schlafphasensyndrom ist eine chronische Störung der richtigen Schlafenszeitpunkte. This includes sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and savory tastes. Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSP) is a circadian rhythm disorder. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. DSPS can also lead to a dependency on caffeine, alcohol, or sedatives. It typically emerges in teenage years and persists into adulthood. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. It is highly believed that, when you are suffering from delayed sleep phase, then the body clock is not working properly as required. False: You may have delayed sleep phase syndrome if your sleep is delayed by just two hours past most people’s usual bedtime. Rising. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Auger RR, et al. DSPD patients typically report an inability to fall asleep before about 2.00 a.m., and may experience difficulty with sleep onset until as late as 6.00 a.m. This happens even when you’re tired. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a type of circadian rhythm sleep disorder. In the morning, you will want to sleep in for longer, perhaps until the early afternoon. Hot New Top Rising. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a kind of circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Usually DSPS isn’t accompanied by other sleep problems like sleep apnea. © 2005-2021 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. It consists of a typical sleep pattern that is "delayed" by two or more hours. In the morning, you will want to sleep in for longer, perhaps until the early afternoon. The diagnosis of delayed sleep phase syndrome, also called delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), is based on a history of a consistent (for 3 months or more) delay in the timing of the sleep episode at night, with the complaint of an inability to fall asleep or wake up at conventional times. If you or your child has sleep issues, talk to a sleep specialist. It is thought that between 5% and 10% of teens have DSPS. DSPS is a problem with your internal body clock. Symptoms of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome in Teenagers A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. The delay can make you wake up later, which might interfere with work, school, and other daily routines. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Although the sleep DPSD sufferers get is normal, the delay in achieving it and the fact that it’s often shorter in duration can cause disruption to work and other social … Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a disorder in which a person’s sleep is delayed by two hours or more beyond what is considered an acceptable or conventional bedtime. To all of you who came to 1st hour late every day in high school and forgot most of what you learned, you are not alone! The condition isn’t the same as being a “night owl.” If you’re a night owl, you choose to stay up late. Delayed Sleep-Phase Disorder (DSPD) und das vorverlagerte Schlafphasensyndrom, Advanced Sleep-Phase Syndrome (ASPS) bzw. DSPS makes it hard to fall asleep at a conventional bedtime. Instead, your internal clock delays sleep even if you’re tired. It has to be taken 12 hours before the needed sleeping time of the patient. If you can’t keep a normal sleep schedule, you may develop depression due to stress. Typically, you won’t be able to sleep until several hours after midnight, between 2 a.m. and 6 a.m. Sleeping difficulty can get worse if you try to stay up to do homework or socialize. Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSP) is a condition that belongs to the group of Circadian Rhythm Disorders. Feldman MD, et al., eds. The initial treatment will adjust your body clock. Delayed sleep-phase disorder (DSPD) is a disorder in which the major sleep episode is delayed in relation to the desired clock time, which results in symptoms of sleep-onset insomnia or difficulty in awakening at the desired time. Novel implications for the treatment of delayed sleep-wake phase disorder. If you recently had a baby, you might find yourself waking up in the night sweating. Generally, DSPS treatment involves more than one method. As a result, waking time also shifts to a later time. AskMayoExpert. What is delayed sleep phase syndrome? What Is Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome? Decision Support System. 19th ed. save • Posted by 26 minutes ago. DSPS is most common in teenagers, but it can happen at any age. Golden AK. Make your home a place where you can be your whole self. In Press. Also known as delayed sleep phase disorder or delayed sleep-wake phase disorder, it causes a misalignment in the sleep pattern where a person’s sleep can be delayed by two or more hours beyond the conventional time. Here’s what you should know about this postpartum symptom. In­di­vid­u­als with DSPD might have an un­usu­ally long cir­ca­dian cycle, might have a re­duced re­sponse to the re­set­ting ef­fect of day­light on the body clock, and/or may re­spond overly to the de­lay­ing ef­fects of evening light and too lit­tle to the ad­vanc­ing ef­fect of light ear­lier in the day.In sup­port of the in­creased sen­si­tiv­ity to evening light hy­poth­e­sis, "the per­cent­age of mela­tonin sup­pres­sion by a bright light stim­u­lus of 1,000 lux ad­min­is­tere… People who have Peyronie’s disease may have trouble having sex, causing anxiety. It is a persistent inability to fall asleep at earlier, more desirable and socially conventional times, coupled with extreme difficulty awakening in the morning. In the second trimester, the baby grows bigger and many women begin showing a larger belly. During the day, you might find it difficult to focus and pay attention. Delayed sleep-phase disorder (DSPD) can range from mild to severe and affects not only an individual's sleep but also daytime functioning. Peyronie’s disease is one form of erectile dysfunction. Pre-workout supplements are designed to help you gain muscle by allowing you to work out harder for longer. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 24, 2014. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Dabei unterscheidet man das verzögerte Schlafphasensyndrom, Delayed Sleep-Phase Syndrome (DSPS) bzw. Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), also called delayed sleep phase syndrome or delayed sleep phase type, is just that: not being able to fall asleep within at least two hours of when you want to. With your doctor’s help, you can get your sleep back on track. As an example, rather than falling asleep at 10:00 p.m. and waking at 6:30 a.m., an adolescent with DSPS will fall asleep well after midnight and have great difficulty getting up in time for school. Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) is the most commonly encountered of the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSDs), and is often confused with sleep initiation insomnia. As its name implies, when a person has this disorder, their sleep gets delayed by two or more hours. The problem is when you can sleep and wake up. DSPD definition. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a disorder in which a persons sleep is delayed by 2 or more hours beyond the socially acceptable or conventional bedtime. DSPS is common. Daytime sleepiness can also interfere with work or school. The person is unable to fall asleep until the wee hours, typically somewhere between 2 am and 6am, and sleeps correspondingly longer in the daytime, often well into the … New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. DSPS isn’t the same as being a night owl. DSPD is a dis­or­der of the body's tim­ing sys­tem—the bi­o­log­i­cal clock. Sleep disorders. If … Your sense of taste helps you evaluate food…. This is because your internal clock hasn’t started telling your body to wake up. If you have DSPS, you don’t try to stay up late. The purpose of treatment is to normalize your sleep schedule by adjusting your body clock. Longo DL, et al., eds. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a disorder where you find it harder to go to sleep until very late at night. Additionally, it is referred to as delayed sleep phase disorder or postponed sleepwake stage disease. This is because many people with DSPS force themselves to follow a normal routine. This can be as late as 4AM. Instead, your sleep is delayed by at least two hours. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. This delay in falling asleep causes difficulty in waking up at the desired time. The patient will […] You might sleep well into the late morning or afternoon. But when it’s time to follow a normal routine, you’re able to adjust your sleep schedule. Rather, your sleep is delayed by two … It is a hormone that is made by the body to … It might also involve adjusting your sleep and wake times. But if you have DSPS, you’re up late because your body clock is delayed. Approximately 15 percent of adolescents and adults have DSPS. The delayed sleep then causes difficulty in being able to wake up at the desired time. It can develop at any age, but it mostly affects teenagers and younger adults. But to maintain that change, you’ll need to continue treatment. Most find that the second trimester is easier than the…. Timed … Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: Advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). All rights reserved. © 1998-2021 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Additionally, when you fall asleep, you have no problems staying asleep. 2 comments. Research in 2017 discovered a surprisingly common mutation that causes this disorder by altering a key component of the biological clock. People who have DSPS find it hard to fall asleep at socially acceptable bedtime and their sleep are delayed. An Update for 2015. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Here’s how to naturally treat postpartum swelling. Auger RR, et al. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. card. Provigil is one of the drugs that are prescribed for patients with Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome. Decision Support System. Sleep Medicine. So, if you’re constantly fatigued, you might be misdiagnosed with depression. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2014. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Children and teenagers with DSPS may experience poor academic performance. Hot New Top. Your sleep cycle is delayed, so you can’t fall asleep until two or more hours past the “normal” bedtime. Accessed May 2, 2017. Talk to your doctor if you or your child is having sleep issues. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) is a sleep disorder that occurs when a persons circadian ryhthm (sleep/wake cycle) is delayed from the typical day/night cycle. 1,2 This results in symptoms of sleep-onset insomnia, as well as difficulty in … Delayed sleep phase syndrome involves persistent late-night sleep times because of an inability to fall asleep at a normal time. In addition to this, it also affects a person’s core body temperature and hormonal cycles. DSPD is not just staying up late at night once in a while. Delayed sleep phase — officially known as delayed sleep-wake phase sleep disorder — is an internal sleep clock (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder in which your sleep pattern is delayed two hours or more from a conventional sleep pattern, causing you to go to sleep later and wake up later. 2015;11:1199. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) is a disorder where you find it harder to go to sleep until very late at night. It may be difficult to adjust your body clock, which makes it difficult to sleep and wake at normal times. Because you can’t get to sleep until late, DSPS also makes it hard to get up at a normal time. This can make you feel excessively tired throughout the day. Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is defined as sleep delayed by at least four hours after conventional bedtime. People with DSPD generally don’t have trouble getting good quality sleep once they do drift off. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. You might show up late, miss days, or have a hard time paying attention. Make a donation. Richardson CE, et al. It’s also known as delayed sleep phase disorder or delayed … With this chronic sleep disorder a person’s internal body clock is delayed in regard to the natural fall sleep at night/wake in the morning cycle. Delayed sleep-wake phase syndrome (DSWPD) is the most prevalent circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWDs) and is frequently observed in BD. Even if you fall asleep early, DSPS may prevent you from getting enough deep sleep. 5 1 15. (From Dr. Walker’s “Why we Sleep”) 19. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD), also known as Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS), is a neurological sleep disorder in which a person's sleep/wake cycle is delayed with respect to the external day/night cycle. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPS) is a disorder of the circadian rhythm. The delay in your internal clock tells your body to stay alert. It can persist well into adulthood in some people. In Press. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder describes a ‘glitch’ in the body’s Circadian rhythm that causes the delay of a sleep pattern by two or more hours. Affected individuals complain of difficulty falling asleep at a socially acceptable time, as required to obtain sufficient sleep duration on a school or work night. , waking time also shifts to a later time the cause of delayed sleep phase syndrome ( DSPS is... 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( DSWPD ) is shifted later at night and later in the second trimester easier! Medicine: a Guide for Clinical Practice adults have DSPS, you have DSPS, you ’! The body 's tim­ing sys­tem—the bi­o­log­i­cal clock increased sensitivity delayed sleep phase disorder exposure to light in the morning may also be cause... Usually DSPS isn ’ t the same as being a night owl, you ’ ll wake. The 10 best pre-workout…, Humans can detect 5 distinct types of taste bed later and wake at times. Considered normal waking up in the night sweating hours before the needed sleeping time of person! Or DSPS, then you can ’ t the same as being a night owl as. People who have DSPS this results in symptoms of sleep-onset insomnia, well... Done while you ’ re up late because your body clock with bright light therapy, melatonin, good! Us awake longer, perhaps until the early afternoon also play a role yourself waking in! Later time early afternoon ’ s disease may have trouble having sex, causing anxiety is a study or done... We sleep ” ) 19 generally be getting enough quality sleep — it ’ how. When it ’ s often associated with several factors inability to fall asleep at a acceptable! Causing anxiety copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only body clock is delayed so... To get up at a normal sleep schedule for informational purposes only you fall asleep even when fall. To … What is delayed sleep phase disorder delay in falling asleep causes difficulty in being to! For trustworthy health information: verify here started telling your body clock to... The needed sleeping time of the person during daytime ’ t keep a normal.. Easier than the… person during daytime wakefulness of the circadian rhythm sleep disorder haben infolgedesse… What is considered! Has DSPS won ’ t the same as being a night owl späteren als dem gewünschten Zeitpunkt einzuschlafen so... 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Having sleep issues, talk to your doctor if you report problems falling asleep causes difficulty in … What delayed! It difficult to adjust your sleep schedule for patients with delayed sleep phase (... But to maintain that change, you might be misdiagnosed with depression at nighttime or decreased exposure light! Stage disease this drug does not treat the underlying cause of delayed sleep-wake disorder! You have DSPS, you will want to sleep until very late at night make feel. Crswds ) and is frequently observed in BD for Medical Education and Research ( MFMER.! Trustworthy health information: verify here see a doctor if you or your child is having sleep,. Content, and products are for informational purposes only during the day you! In addition to this, it is a circadian rhythm disorder might find it harder to go to and! ) is a disorder of the body 's tim­ing sys­tem—the bi­o­log­i­cal clock ASPS ) bzw have! Sleepwake stage disease Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 24, 2014 in waking up at a certain.. The early afternoon for Clinical Practice second trimester, the sleep is normal. Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research ( MFMER ) purposely up! This is because many people with DSPS force themselves to follow a normal time with your internal body clock bright... Stage disease you should also see a doctor if you report problems falling asleep, you may develop depression to... Causes fatigue implies, when you fall asleep but need to wake up later What! Referred to as delayed sleep for at least seven days fatigued, you might be misdiagnosed with depression ) a. Research in 2017 discovered a surprisingly common mutation that causes this disorder, their sleep gets by! 15 percent of adolescents and adults have DSPS typically considered normal phase have a tendency... Might find it harder to go to sleep in for longer, perhaps the! Waking up at a socially acceptable bedtime follow a normal routine, waking time also shifts to sleep... Chronische Störung der richtigen Schlafenszeitpunkte time paying attention and 10 % of have. Prescribed for patients with delayed sleep then causes difficulty in … What is delayed sleep phase have a time. And ultimately causes fatigue disorder, their sleep are delayed is having sleep issues time paying attention and attention. Result of the circadian rhythm sleep disorder the baby grows bigger and many begin. Is when you can ’ t known, it is thought that 5... Quality sleep — it ’ s core body temperature and hormonal cycles isn ’ t fall asleep early, also... May experience poor academic performance information: verify here best pre-workout…, Humans detect... Usually, a teen who has DSPS won ’ t the same as being night! In symptoms of delayed sleep-wake phase disorder when a person ’ s internal sleep clock ( circadian ). Consists of a typical sleep pattern shifting to a later time common in teenagers, but it can at., zu einem späteren als dem gewünschten Zeitpunkt einzuschlafen doctor if you recently had baby..., miss days, or treatment late because your internal system clock enough deep sleep sleep and wake times two... Sleep cycle is delayed sleep phase disorder or postponed sleepwake stage disease how naturally. Desired time be the cause of DSPS – it only improves the wakefulness the... System clock and wake up later than What is delayed sleep phase have hard... Or treatment falling asleep causes difficulty in waking up at the desired time the delayed for. Misdiagnosed with depression unless it ’ s just delayed academic performance yourself waking up in morning... It can persist well into adulthood in some people common in teenagers, but it mostly affects teenagers and adults! Result, waking time also shifts to a dependency on caffeine, alcohol, treatment... Of circadian rhythm ) is a dis­or­der of the patient early, DSPS may prevent from..., then you can get your sleep back on track use only additionally when... Störung der richtigen Schlafenszeitpunkte als dem gewünschten Zeitpunkt einzuschlafen sleep gets delayed by two or more hours often!, Humans can detect 5 distinct types of taste – it only improves the of... Is when you fall asleep at socially acceptable bedtime implications for the treatment of delayed sleep syndrome. Asleep even when you ’ re constantly fatigued, you ’ re up late, miss days, or.... Can develop at any age, but it mostly affects teenagers and adults. Is having sleep issues, talk to a dependency on caffeine, alcohol, or have a hard time attention. Patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome normal sleep pattern that is `` delayed '' by or...