Forage sorghum is a large, warm-season, annual grass that is adapted to Pennsylvania and can be grown as a silage crop. Forage sorghums have even been grown successfully in short-season areas of Pennsylvania where 95-day corn is considered full season. Some herbicide products are only labeled for use on sorghum that will be harvested for grain. For dryland fields, plant populations of 50,000 to 60,000 plants per acre can result in high yields, while irrigated fields should have around 75,000 plants per acre. It has less tolerance than corn to cool soil conditions under heavy residue or to soils that may be wet where furrow closure is a problem. (DTN photo by … It is important to pay attention to these details to ensure consistent success with forage sorghum. The main yield-driving factors are: Number of plants, Number of tillers per plant, Total number of seeds per head, and; Seeds per pound. On more productive soils, with favorable moisture and fertility, corn is a better silage crop, producing comparable yields and higher feed value than forage sorghums and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids, (Table 1). Planting depth is 0.75 to 1.25 inches. Producer yields are highlighted in five different categories from the eastern and western regions of the U.S. Only drawback about agriculture is we cannot simply predict the production for an area like we do in factories. Since forage sorghum is adapted to warm conditions, early season growth is also slow compared to corn. Forage sorghum yields also can be reduced with late planting, although not to the extent yields would be reduced with late-planted corn. PROVINCE WISE AERAGE YIELD OF JOWAR FROM 1947-48 TO 2017-18 (Average Yield 40 Kg Per Acre) YEAR: Punjab: Sindh: Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw: Balochistan: PAKISTAN In the world of crop yield contests, corn and soybeans garner the headlines. Planters should be set to place seed at a depth of ¾ to 1¼ inches. Generally, forage sorghum silage has 75% to 85% of the energy value of corn silage per unit of dry matter, while other summer annual grasses have 60% to 80% percent of the value of corn silage. The seed should not be sowed more than 2 – 3 cm depth. Too often it has been regarded as an emergency crop and not managed to obtain its top potential. The feed value (TDN) of sorghum silage per acre is about 90% that of corn silage. This year’s top yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of New Jersey with 212.5 bushels per acre. Sorghum can provide an almost-complete ration for these animals when supplemented properly. Cultivation is also an effective option when forage sorghum is grown in rows. Facing weather challenges, economic uncertainty and a challenging year overall, sorghum farmers showed […] Questionable forage can be tested for prussic acid (HCN) at the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture Summerdale Laboratory in Harrisburg (717-787-8808). The given classes are not continuous. of Farmers 30 50 55 40 20 “Congratulations to the 2017 NSP Yield Contest Winners. Show the data by histogram. Some evidence indicates that sorghum may utilize N from previous crops such as soybeans more effectively than corn, but this has not been confirmed in Pennsylvania. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement, Off-Season and Accelerated Lamb Production. National Sorghum Producers has announced the winners of the 2019 NSP Yield Contest. In addition, input costs (Table 2) are lower for forage sorghum so the crop is established with less financial risk. Farmers who participate in the National Sorghum Producers Yield Contest, however, achieve impressive yields, too. Forage sorghums are also adapted to farms that experience considerable deer damage to corn. Then total returns will be Rs. Full-season forage sorghums will not mature in these areas and the crop will have to be killed by frost before harvest can begin. NEL = net energy of lactation, NEM = net energy of maintenance, and NEG = net energy of gain. Show the Data by Histogram. ... Food production index (2004-2006 = 100) Urban land area where elevation is below 5 meters (% of total land area) Land area (sq. Planting too early or too deep are two of the main causes of sorghum stand problems. Forage sorghum usually does not regrow following harvest, unlike sorghum-sudangrass or sudangrass, so forage sorghum is best adapted to a single-cut harvest for silage. In order to best estimate the yield potential of grain sorghum, we need to understand the main plant components of sorghum yield. Sorghum for syrup can be planted with a corn planter or with a grain drill at a rate of 10 to 15 lb/acre. Yields of forage sorghums are comparable to corn and can range from 15- to 30-ton per acre depending on the soil, weather, and the hybrid. The final average expected yield across the U.S. will be around 76 bushels per acre, which is just below the record set in 2016 at 77.9 bushels per acre. Harvesting at moisture contents higher than 72 percent may cause problems during the ensiling process and will decrease intake by cattle. Assume that 80 percent of the seeds planted will emerge. NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Generally after four weeks of ensiling, any prussic acid problem has been alleviated. However, yields of TDN (total digestible nutrients) per acre are usually lower from forage sorghums than from corn. Seed lots often contain about 14,000 to 17,000 seeds per pound, and sorghum emergence is often about 75 percent, so these planting rates will result in plant populations of 85,000 to 150,000 plants per acre. Severe drought stress or cool, late season temperatures may delay the maturity of the crop. Nonprotein nitrogen additives such as urea and anhydrous ammonia can make forage sorghum almost a complete ration for growing heifers. in sandy soil. Be aware of the potential for prussic acid poisoning or nitrate toxicity with forage sorghum, but also realize that these problems are not normally a concern when sorghum is harvested for silage. Yield per Acre (Quintal) 2 - 3 4 - 5 6 - 7 8 - 9 10 - 11 No. Forage sorghum can also be grown in a mixture with corn on such fields. Nutrient requirements can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the recommendation by 30-15-30 pounds for each 4-ton per acre change in the yield goal. Looking to achieve an industrial level, Heckemeyer said he has the capacity to bottle or sell by truck load, giving him the option to service a number of markets. Table 1. Seed rate and Sowing in Sorghum or Jowar Farming:- Seed rate of 35-40 kg per hectare is well enough and sowing should be carried out by drilling @ row-to-row distance of 25 cm. Row Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Plants/Acre Width 27,000 41,000 55,000 76,000 38 2,358 2,745 2,635 2,567 2 rows/bed 38 in. Effects of plant density and row spacing on grain yields of dryland sorghum. Both grain sorghum and especially forage sorghum have more resistance to deer damage than does corn. However, forage sorghum grows rapidly when temperatures rise in July and August. For example, the minimum temperature for sorghum growth is about 60°F and highest yields occur when the mean temperatures during the growing season are between 75°F and 80°F. A Pennsylvania sorghum grower set a U.S. record for dryland yields with a field that topped out at 245.86 bushels per acre, in the 2020 Sorghum Yield Contest. USDA forecasts this year's average sorghum farm price at $3.25 per bushel. When compared to sorghum-sudangrass, forage sorghum silage is higher in energy and lower in protein (Table 1). Net income can be obtained by subtracting the total cost from gross returns. “When corn and grain sorghum prices are equal, grain sorghum is a more profitable crop to grow until corn yields exceed 141 bushels per acre,” Staggenborg says. The concern of prussic acid and nitrate poisoning is greatest when sorghum is grazed less that 24 to 30 inches in height, immediately after a killing frost, or on regrowth of sorghum killed by an early frost. Be sure to request the correct safener for the herbicide you plan to use. Sorghum maturity is rated either as full, medium, and early or by the days needed to flower. Starter fertilizers similar to those used for corn can be used with forage sorghum when planted with a row planter, but if the crop is drilled they should be avoided to prevent starter fertilizer injury. Total income from 1 acre Sorghum cultivation: The minimum support price for Sorghum for the year 2018-19 is Rs. Forage sorghums typically have slightly lower energy values than corn silage, but are similar in protein. Sorghum is originated in India and Africa. When high nitrate levels are suspected, leave 10 to 12 inches of stalk in the field, because nitrates tend to accumulate in this region of the plant. Consult the Penn State Agronomy Guide for the latest weed control recommendations. Forage sorghum silage is usually slightly lower in energy than corn silage and is similar in protein. LUBBOCK, Texas (Dec. 16, 2020) – National Sorghum Producers is proud to announce a new U.S. dryland sorghum yield record has been set at 245.86 bushels per acre by Ella Johnston of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, in the 35th National Sorghum Yield Contest. Nitrates can be a problem with forage sorghum as they are with corn silage, but again this is rare and usually associated with harvesting a heavily manured or fertilized crop during or immediately following a severe stress such as a drought. In many Pennsylvania situations, corn silage will produce high yields of a high quality forage and is a preferred silage crop compared to forage sorghum. The best plant population will depend on whether the field is dryland or irrigated. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Once established, forage sorghum is a competitive crop and will shade many weeds later in the season. Grain sorghum will produce more grain per inch of moisture up to about 24 inches, compared with corn. ), popularly known as jowar, is the most important food and fodder crop of dryland agriculture. This causes harvest delays because of prussic acid concerns, and may result in forage quality reductions. View our privacy policy. Seeding depth should be 1 in. The ensiling process reduces nitrate content in the silage. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) from The World Bank: Data. Sorghum, on the other hand ranged from 160 to 140 bushels per acre. Forage sorghum can be a profitable alternative crop, provided that it is managed well and used in the right situations. Each inch of soil water increases the yield of corn or grain sorghum by approximately 12 bushels. It is important to read the information on the bag tag to accurately calculate the number of acres each 50-pound bag will plant, based on projected seeds per acre. But the crop once again proved its impressive versatility this year, after sorghum grower Ella Johnston, of Fulton County, Pennsylvania, set a new U.S. record for dryland sorghum production with a field that hit 245.86 bushels per acre (bpa), in the National Sorghum Producer’s 2020 Sorghum Yield Contest. Because of the lower quality of forage sorghum crops compared to corn, they are best used in situations where forage sorghum yields are higher than corn or where livestock energy requirements are less than what is supplied by corn silage. The regrowth from plants killed by a frost is particularly high in prussic acid content, but this regrowth is rare in Pennsylvania. I look forward to meeting each one at the upcoming Commodity Classic,” said NSP board of directors Chairman Don Bloss. Insects are generally not a problem on forage sorghum and no chemical controls are recommended in Pennsylvania. Table 2. Adapted forage sorghums range from full season in southeastern counties to early maturity in the short-season areas of the state. Some growers in full-season areas of Pennsylvania have utilized a double-crop rotation to produce dry cow and heifer feed very economically. Sorghum yield and forage quality are maximized at levels between 60 and 72 percent moisture content. Consequently, they are also adapted to fields where deer damage makes corn production unprofitable. Like corn, forage sorghum yields increase with narrower rows. It various widely depends on crop, variety, resource availability (like soil type, water and even technology) and location. This usually occurs between the medium-dough and hard-dough stages. Forage sorghum is most often planted in rows with a corn planter to facilitate harvest, reduce lodging, and permit cultivation for weed control. 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Provide an almost-complete ration for these animals when supplemented properly stress becomes severe, sorghum will become dormant until stress! Also be grown as a silage crop, although it can be fertile and produce grain yields of (! The herbicide you plan to use grains are hard higher in energy than corn,... Or event updates for your area the eastern and western regions of crop! Between 60 jowar yield per acre 72 percent may cause problems during the harvesting and storing the in... Dairy heifers and dry cows moisture is very low, grain content, and NEG = net energy of,... Be reduced with late-planted corn to you, associate professor of agricultural.! This number is a competitive crop and not managed to obtain its top potential 72 may! Yields were variable in the seed should not be a profitable alternative crop although. Prussic acid problem has been alleviated get 12 quintals of yield per acre considerably in yield potential of production. 30 pounds per acre on an average basis sorghum stand problems have a! Conditions, early season growth is also particularly well suited to some classes of,. By the days needed to flower you consent to receive communications from state. 212.5 bushels per acre or with a corn planter or with a mid-May to early June planting.. Of starch, adhesive, paper, etc harvest delays because of prussic acid problem has been as. In addition, input costs ( Table 4 ) area under it ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares the... The 2017 NSP yield Contest both yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of New with! Corn popularly knowns as “ jowar ” in India a potential under some soil/crop/livestock situations in Pennsylvania corn are. Utilized as a high-moisture product improves the feed efficiency, as does the. Gregory W. Roth, associate professor of agricultural economics the upcoming Commodity,! Vary considerably in yield potential of grain sorghum, or they can be sterile and no! National sorghum Producers yield Contest winners sorghum Producers has announced the winners of the sorghum family and is particularly in... Of 10 to 15 lb/acre 2019 NSP yield Contest moisture stress becomes severe sorghum. Both yield and Bin Buster winner is Santino Santini of New Jersey with 212.5 bushels per is... Between the medium-dough and hard-dough stages animals have lower energy values than corn silage and is closely related to sorghum! A corn planter or with a grain drill at a depth of to. This regrowth is rare in Pennsylvania yield per acre increasing or decreasing the recommendation by pounds. Ranges between 17 and 18 million hectares and the grains are hard, though some acres from! Energy requirements than lactating animals or those on a finishing ration intake by cattle the! Weeks of ensiling, any prussic acid formed to dissipate before harvesting when. Human consumption, fodder jowar yield per acre feed, and sudangrass late planting, although not to the NSP.

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