Measuring Belongingness: The Social Connectedness and the Social Assurance Scales. Vol. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Login . “The impacts of neighborhoods on intergenerational mobility: Childhood exposure effects and county-level estimates”. … These connections are likely related to past migration patterns: Kern County was a major destination for migrants fleeing the Dust Bowl in the 1930s, and half of the residents of the San Joaquin Valley in Kern County have ancestors who migrated from the affected regions. Counties are denoted by their 5-digit FIPS code, countries are denoted by their ISO2 code. The SCS is the only self-report scale available that measures social connectedness as defined above. Put differently, if this measure is twice as large, a Facebook user in i is about twice as likely to be connected with a given Facebook user in j. It’s the measure of how people interact, cooperate, and collaborate. Topics:  https://dataforgood.fb.com/, Accessed DAY MONTH YEAR.”, To personalize content, tailor and measure ads and provide a safer experience, we use cookies. We also show that, just as we observed in the within-US data, the degree of social connectedness to foreign countries is correlated with higher trade with these counties. We use an anonymized snapshot of all active Facebook users and their friendship networks to measure the intensity of connectedness between locations. The OSCS is a 25-item, self-report scale purported to measure feelings of connectedness for students enrolled in online degree or certification programs (Bolliger & Inan, 2012). We also explore the international dimension of social networks. The social determinants of health are difficult to quantify. Social Connectedness i,j, therefore, measures the relative probability of a Facebook friendship link between a given Facebook user in location i and a … The populations of US counties with more geographically dispersed social networks are generally richer and better educated, and have higher life expectancy and greater social mobility. The data within this folder include this measure calculated for different geographical areas as of August 2020. We then analysed the role of social interactions in the housing market. All other countries are broken into their GADM1 regions. This is not surprising, as many of the ideas are taken directly from the mathematical theory of graphs. However, systematic analyses of social connectedness and social networks have traditionally been complicated by the absence of high-quality and large-scale data on which individuals are connected to each other. and the Facebook Data for Good Program, Social Connectedness Index (SCI). Given Facebook’s scale (over 2 billion active users globally and 236 million active users in the US and Canada) and the relative representativeness of Facebook’s user body, these data provide the first comprehensive measure of friendship networks at a national level. For example, we show that region-pairs that are more socially connected have larger trade flows, even after controlling flexibly for the geographic distance between counties. European countries are broken into their NUTS2 regions (e.g. Connectedness is especially important for children of parents with a mental illness as research has consistently shown that higher levels of connectedness are associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, and low levels of connectedness are linked to negative social and psychological outcomes in children and increased risk-taking behaviour and isolation in adolescence. • Trust is generally measured with the question ^Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted or that you need to be very careful in dealing with people? Measuring Connectedness to the LGBT Community Some attempts havebeenmadeatdesigning apsycho-metrically sound measure of community connectedness specific to sexual minority communities. This measure, which can be shared with other academic researchers, is called the Social Connectedness Index (SCI), and is based on anonymised data on the number of friendship links on Facebook, the world’s largest online social networking service. Frontiers of economic research Migration, Tags:  Prior to testing this hypothesis, however, it was necessary to examine the psycho-metric limitations found in the current measure of social connect-edness, the SCS. It also includes a number of potentially relevant academic papers. Each row is a country – country pair. In each dataset, we scale the measure to have a fixed maximum value (by dividing the original measure by the maximum and multiplying by 1,000,000,000) and the lowest possible value of 1. Social connectedness can be understood as ‘a subjective psychological bond that people feel in relation to individuals and groups of others’ (Haslam C. et al, 2015). The number of friendships after this noise is added cannot be less than 0. The SNI is a self‐report measure which asks participants to provide information about the type and number of social connections they regularly engage in. Our measure, which we call the 'Social Connectedness Index' (SCI), is based on the number of friendship links on Facebook, the world's largest online social networking service. By clicking "Accept All", you agree to our use of cookies on and off Facebook. (2017b) used a similar setting to explore the role of house price beliefs in driving individuals’ mortgage leverage choice. location pair. Figure 1 Heat map of social connectedness. No. Low levels of social connection are associated with declines in physical and psychological health as well as a higher likelihood for antisocial behavior that leads to further isolation. Items on the Social Connectedness Scale reflect feelings of emotional distance between the self and … Social connectedness: Measurements, determinants, and effects. This pattern is likely explained by the ‘Great Migration’ of southern African Americans to Northern and Midwestern cities throughout the earlier and middle parts of the 20th century. Duggan, Ellison, Lampe, Lenhart, and Madden (2015) report that as of September 2014, more than 58 percent of the US adult population and The Family Connectedness Scale (Eisenberg & Resnick, 2006) is a seven item measure to evaluate protective factors among adolescents. Each dataset has three columns: user_loc, fr_loc, and scaled_sci. Facebook was created in 2004 and, by the fourth quarter of 2019, had about 2.5 billion monthly active users globally, including 394 million in Europe. Our measure, which we call the "Social Connectedness Index" (SCI), is based on the number of friendship links on Facebook, the world's largest online social networking service. 12 provinces in the Netherlands). In addition, the relationship between type of social relationships and leisure participation was analyzed. Facebook © 2021 Powered by Wordpress.com VIP, How to Access the Social Connectedness Index, Download the Facebook Social Connectedness Index here. But it is worth the effort to deal with the jargon. We also take several steps to preserve user privacy: We exclude the following areas: Afghanistan, Western Sahara, China, Cuba, Iraq, Israel, Iran, North Korea, Russia, Syria, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Venezuela, Yemen, Crimea, Jammu and Kashmir, Donetsk, Luhansk, Sevastopol, West Bank, and Gaza. In recent work along these lines, we introduce a new measure of social connectedness between US county-pairs, as well as between US counties and foreign countries (Bailey et al. To construct measures of the geographic concentration of social networks that are less affected by population density, we calculate, for each county, the share of friends that live within the nearest 50 million people. Social connectedness, i.e. 42. Rate the degree to which you agree or disagree with each statement using the following scale (1 = Strongly Disagree and 6 = Strongly Agree). 232-241 Year 1995 Targeted user Youth Description No. GADM1_NUTS3_Counties: Countries with population < 1 million are not broken up. Social networks in the US are quite local, and both national and international networks are substantially shaped by historical events and migration patterns. Counties are denoted by their 5-digit FIPS code. We add random N(0,1) noise (rounded to the nearest integer) to the number of friendships between each pair of locations. Within the U.S., social connectedness is strongly decreasing in geographic distance between counties: for the population of the average county, 62.8% of friends live within 100 miles. These data use GADM version 2.8 and NUTS 2016. The social determinants of health are difficult to quantify. Our primary measure of Social Connectedness between two locations. In other words, social connectedness generates a positive feedback loop of social, emotional and physical well-being. This is not surprising, as many of the ideas are taken directly from the mathematical theory of graphs. 1 Social Connectedness Scale – Revised Directions: Following are a number of statements that reflect various ways in which we view ourselves. Social network methods have a vocabulary for describing connectedness and distance that might, at first, seem rather formal and abstract. The geographic dispersion of social networks is correlated with a large number of socioeconomic outcome variables at the county level. More recently, the emergence of data from online social networking services such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter has helped researchers overcome this measurement challenge, and has expanded our understanding of the determinants and effects of social networks across a large number of settings. Our primary measure of Social Connectedness between two locations i and j is: Here, FB_Usersi and FB_Usersj are the number of Facebook users in locations i and j, and FB_Connectionsi,j is the number of Facebook friendship connections between the two. Social networks are most concentrated in the South, the Midwest, and Appalachia. In fact, we have entire sections of our brain dedicated solely to social thinking. When the brain is in “default mode”—meaning, when the brain is not measurement strategies for assessing the social connectedness of individuals, families and communities. 42. A world without the WTO: what’s at stake? Information and translations of Social connectedness in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. The populations of counties with more geographically dispersed social networks are generally richer, better educated, and have higher life expectancy. Social network methods have a vocabulary for describing connectedness and distance that might, at first, seem rather formal and abstract. Try to connect with someone on a more frequent basis. Learn more, including about controls: Cookie Policy, We use an anonymized snapshot of all active Facebook users and their friendship networks to measure the intensity of connectedness between locations. 40 regions in the Netherlands). A consortium including local mental health charities, NHS trusts, Newcastle and Gateshead councils, and Newcastle University are exploring new ways to measure social connectedness within the city-region. Figure 2 shows the distribution of this measure across the US. US counties). How often you socialize is very important. Our measure, which we call the “Social Connectedness Index” (SCI), is based on the number of friendship links on Facebook, the world’s largest online social networking service. These connections can reveal important insights about economic opportunities, social mobility, trade and more. (RJM) The friendship links to Norway are strongest in the Upper Midwest (particularly in North Dakota and Minnesota), a region that saw significant immigration from Norway in the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. Duggan, Ellison, Lampe, Lenhart, and Madden (2015) report that as of September 2014, more than 58 percent of the US adult population and Alternatives: Those interested in a measure of connectedness to the youth’s more immediate neighborhood could consider the Neighborhood Connectedness subscale of the Hemingway Measure of Adolescent Connectedness (MAC) for adolescents (Grades 6 and up) or the equivalent subscale of the Pre-Adolescent Measure of Adolescent Connectedness (PreMAC). Each row is a US county –country pair. Download the Facebook Social Connectedness Index here on the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)’s Humanitarian Data Exchange. Our measure, which we call the "Social Connectedness Index" (SCI), is based on the number of friendship links on Facebook, the world's largest online social networking service. The Social Connectedness Index measures the strength of connectedness between two geographic areas as represented by Facebook friendship ties. THE SCIENCE OF SOCIAL: Social connectedness refers to the relationships people have with others. 1995. OECD measures of connectedness: Trust • We define Social Capital in this context as Ztrust and norms of cooperation. Social support and connection are key protective factors against suicide. This research, which aggregates Facebook friendship links to geographic a level that enables access to SCI data by the broader research community, complements earlier research that highlighted how data from online social networking services such as Facebook can help researchers better understand the causal effects of social interactions on economic decision making (Bailey et al. The authors used a systematic review methodology. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 32(3):259–80, 2018b. Social Connectedness Scale This scale was designed to measure general feelings of social connectedness as an essential component of belongingness. Each dataset has three columns: user_loc, fr_loc, and scaled_sci. This entailed a systematic search of electronic databases for papers using a quantitative measure of social connectedness. 232-241 Year 1995 Targeted user Youth Description No. and the Facebook Data for Good Program, Social Connectedness Index (SCI). If you haven’t heard the term before, it’s the measure and experience of belonging and relatedness between people. The SCI presented here is the average SCI across 10 draws of 99% of the population of active Facebook users. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 32(3):259–80, 2018b. The measure has good internal consistency with a … Measuring and analyzing factors at the population, community and individual levels will be helpful for a more complete understanding of social connectedness. To reference this data, please use the following citation: Bailey, R. Cao, T. Kuchler, J. Stroebel, and A. Wong. Maybe call a friend for a quick chat during your lunch hour—even that brief interaction may make a difference in how you feel. We also find that when county-pairs have higher social connectedness, they are likely to have more cross-county patent citations. This column uses data on friendship links on Facebook to construct a new measure of social connectedness between US counties, and between US counties and foreign countries. Bailey, M, E Davila, T Kuchler, and J Stroebel (2017b). Get friendly with the rule of two Q’s. One of the key elements of the metho… Finally, we find that more connected region-pairs see more bilateral migration and job flows, highlighting the potential of social networks to overcome frictions to moving across the US. The data within this folder include this measure calculated for different geographical areas as of August 2020. We hope that the availability of the SCI data will encourage more research into the causal determinants of these observed empirical relationships. 1995. Conditional on distance, we find social networks to be substantially stronger within US states than they are across state lines. The instrument consists of four subscales that measure comfort, community, facilitation, and interaction and collaboration. “Measuring Social Connectedness”. In that paper, we first documented significant systematic heterogeneity in the structures of social networks at the individual level. We first document that past international migration patterns are important determinants of present-day social connectedness, but with elasticities that are declining in the time since the peak of the respective primary migration wave. Developed two self-report measures of belongingness (social connectedness and social assurance) based on self psychology theory. Unfotunately, the opposite is also true for those who lack social connectedness. “House Price Beliefs and Mortgage Leverage Choice”. Bailey, R. Cao, T. Kuchler, J. Stroebel, and A. Wong. Kern County has strong social connectedness to Oklahoma and Arkansas (in addition to strong links throughout the state of California). 2. SOCIAL CONNECTEDNESS 3 THE SCIENCE OF SOCIAL: Social connectedness refers to the relationships people have with others. We showed that the house price experiences within people’s social networks have large effects on their housing market investments, including their decision whether to buy a house and how much to pay for a given house. The three elements of social connectedness. Programs and practices that promote social connectedness and support are one element of a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention. This suggests that social networks might help overcome some of the informational and cultural frictions that can inhibit trade. Measuring and analyzing factors at the population, community and individual levels will be helpful for a more complete understanding of social connectedness. In recent work along these lines, we introduce a new measure of social connectedness between US county-pairs, as well as between US counties and foreign countries (Bailey et al. Each row is a US county – US county pair. Vol. of social connectedness (number of social gatherings, number of close relationships, satisfaction with social contacts, feeling of social connectedness, and loneliness) were investigated in relation to leisure activities. THE SOCIAL REPORT 2005 115 INDICATORS Five indicators are used to measure New Zealand’s levels of social connectedness. Systematic analyses of social connectedness and social networks have traditionally been complicated by a lack of high-quality, large-scale data. They include every (symmetric). Research-based policy analysis and commentary from leading economists, Social connectedness: Measurement, determinants, and effects, Ruiqing Cao, Theresa Kuchler, Johannes Stroebel, Arlene Wong 08 September 2017. Measuring Social Connectedness The Social Connectedness Index is constructed using aggregated and anony-mized information from the universe of friendship links between all Facebook users as of April 2016. Social connectedness was related to one's opinion of self in relation to other people. It’s the measure of how people interact, cooperate, and collaborate. measurement strategies for assessing the social connectedness of individuals, families and communities. Jackson, M O (2014), “Networks in the understanding of economic behaviors”, The Journal of Economic Perspectives 28(4): 3–22. 1 Social Connectedness Scale –Revised Directions: Following are a number of statements that reflect various ways in which we view ourselves. Our measure, which we call the “Social Connectedness Index” (SCI), is based on the number of friendship links on Facebook, the world’s largest online social networking service. Each row is a pair of these areas. No. Rate the degree to which you agree or disagree with each statement using the following scale (1 = Strongly Disagree and 6 = Strongly Agree). Some of these differences are driven by differences in population density across the US. Researchers are increasingly interested in better understanding the determinants and effects of social connectedness (Jackson 2014). They included papers published in English. Countries are denoted by their ISO2 code. The probability of friendship links is strongly declining in geographic distance, with the elasticity of the number of friendship links to geographic distance ranging from about −2.0 over distances less than 200 miles, to about −1.2 for distances larger than 200 miles. Social Connectedness Social connectedness can be defined as the experience of belonging to a social relationship or network (Lee and Robbins, 1995) and a social networking community is such a network. The economics of insurance and its borders with general finance, Maturity mismatch stretching: Banking has taken a wrong turn. Database of Global Administrative Areas (GADM. ) But it is worth the effort to deal with the jargon. (various sources) 2. The US, Canada, and the countries of the Indian Subcontinent with population > 1 million (Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) are broken into their GADM2 regions (e.g. While, on average, US friendship networks are quite local, there is substantial heterogeneity across counties in the number of friends that live close by. Interestingly, they also have higher social mobility as measured by Chetty and Hendren (2015), suggesting that social networks might play an important role in facilitating social mobility. 2017a). Within the U.S., social connectedness is strongly decreasing in geographic distance between counties: for the population of the average county, 62.8% of friends live within 100 miles. In its most narrow form, social connectedness refers to the social ties between people. It also includes a number of potentially relevant academic papers. These effects are due to the role of social interactions in influencing people’s perceptions about the attractiveness of buying local real estate. Measuring Social Connectedness The Social Connectedness Index is constructed using aggregated and anony-mized information from the universe of friendship links between all Facebook users as of April 2016. Social connectedness: Measurements, determinants, and effects. What does Social connectedness mean? Positive and supportive social relationships and community connections can help buffer the effects of risk factors in people’s lives. Chetty, R, and N Hendren (2015). Figure 3 Social connectedness abroad: Norway. Social assurance correlated with one's reliance on other people. Similarly, Cook County, IL, the home of the city of Chicago, has strong connections to the South (in addition to connections throughout the Midwest). Figure 2 Share of friends among nearest 50 million people. We introduce a new measure of social connectedness between U.S. county-pairs, as well as between U.S. counties and foreign countries. Locations are assigned to users based on their information and activity on Facebook, including the stated city on their Facebook profile, and device and connection information. We remove all locations with fewer than 100 active users, except for countries, which are only included if they have more than 50,000 active users. One example is the Psychological Sense of Community among Gay MenScale(Proescholdbelletal.,2006).This26-itemmea-sure includes items from the SCI and other measures Comparisons were made From: Building Communities, 2013 In order to obtain a measure of social connectedness, we used the Social Network Index (SNI; Cohen et al., 1997). Journal of Counseling Psychology. The 5th-95th percentile range of the share of friends living with 50 miles is 38.1% to 70.3%. 2017a). In related work, Bailey et al. social networks, social connectedness, migration, Economics PhD student, Harvard University, Assistant Professor of Finance, Stern School of Business, New York University, David S. Loeb Professor of Finance at the Stern School of Business, New York University, Assistant Professor of Economics at the Department of Economics, Princeton University, Eleonora Patacchini, Pierre Picard, Yves Zenou, Matthew Jackson, Brian Rogers, Yves Zenou, Bozio, Garbinti, Goupille-Lebret, Guillot, Piketty, 14 - 14 January 2021 / Online / Centre for Economic Policy Research and the Universities of Oxford and York, 18 January - 22 March 2021 / online / Political Economy of International Organization, Eichengreen, Avgouleas, Poiares Maduro, Panizza, Portes, Weder di Mauro, Wyplosz, Zettelmeyer, Baldwin, Beck, Bénassy-Quéré, Blanchard, Corsetti, De Grauwe, den Haan, Giavazzi, Gros, Kalemli-Ozcan, Micossi, Papaioannou, Pesenti, Pissarides , Tabellini, Weder di Mauro, How location affects friendship interactions, The Economic Effects of Social Networks: Evidence from the Housing Market, House Price Beliefs and Mortgage Leverage Choice, Stronger together? the experience of belonging and relatedness between people, is a central concept in understanding and evaluating communication media, in particular awareness systems. The policy mix strikes back, The Economic History of Central, East and South-East Europe, 1800 to the Present, CEPR Household Finance Seminar Series - 13, Homeownership of immigrants in France: selection effects related to international migration flows, Climate Change and Long-Run Discount Rates: Evidence from Real Estate, The Permanent Effects of Fiscal Consolidations, Demographics and the Secular Stagnation Hypothesis in Europe, QE and the Bank Lending Channel in the United Kingdom, Independent report on the Greek official debt, Rebooting the Eurozone: Step 1 – Agreeing a Crisis narrative. A generic measure based on this construct can support the design of such systems. At least 50% of the study sample needed to be 18-65 years of age and to have a mental disorder. They include every (symmetric) i to j and j to i location pair. ♦♦ We introduce a new measure of social connectedness between U.S. county-pairs, as well as between U.S. counties and foreign countries. We also document that counties that are more socially connected see more bilateral economic and social activity. The August 2020 version of the datasets included are: There are two files built on the Database of Global Administrative Areas (GADM) and the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) areas. Our measures of social connectedness across locations builds on administrative data from Facebook, a global online social networking service. Given Facebook’s scale (over 2 billion active users globally and 236 mil… Locations are assigned to users based on their information and activity on Facebook, including the stated city on their Facebook profile, and device and connection information. Consider Figure 1, which shows heat maps of the geographic distributions of the social networks of Kern County, CA (Panel A), and Cook County, IL (Panel B). To learn about what Facebook Data for Good is doing in response to the COVID19 pandemic, click here.×. social connectedness by hypothesizing that the negative direct effect of social connectedness on psychological distress would be mediated by dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors. European countries are broken into NUTS3 regions (e.g. These results point to an important role of social interactions in the process of innovation, providing empirical evidence for a class of theories of economic growth that have focused on knowledge spillovers. You can find a more detailed methodology in the Journal of Economic Perspectives here. We also round the measure to the nearest integer. Our primary measure of Social Connectedness between two locations i and j is: Here, FB_Users i and FB_Users j are the number of Facebook users in locations i and j, and FB_Connections i,j is the number of Facebook friendship connections between the two. Bailey, M, R Cao, T Kuchler, and J Stroebel (2016). #1: Quantity. Bailey, M, R Cao, T Kuchler, J Stroebel, and A Wong (2017a). and the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) areas. Measuring Belongingness: The Social Connectedness and the Social Assurance Scales. Downloadable (with restrictions)! For example, Figure 3 shows the number of friendship links between each US county and Norway. Together, the five indicators measure opportunities for and the actual levels of connection between people, both within people’s immediate social … Geographic areas as of August 2020 Good is doing in response to the relationships people have with.! European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics ( NUTS ) areas a measure! Measures the strength of connectedness between locations positive feedback loop of social connectedness to... Social networks: Evidence from the mathematical theory of graphs: Following are a number of potentially academic. Of risk factors in people ’ s at stake studies were screened, 2006 is... Round the measure to the nearest integer scale this scale was designed to measure the intensity of in! Can reveal important insights about Economic opportunities, social networks might help overcome some of the share of living... A world without the WTO: what ’ s scale ( also known as egg scale ) provided Timothy. Individual level as egg scale ) provided by Timothy above is a central concept in understanding and evaluating communication,! 1 million are not broken up suggests that social networks in the South, the relationship between of..., the Midwest, and scaled_sci in population density across the US are quite local, and A. Wong they. And practices that promote social connectedness, they are across state lines by. Been complicated by a lack of high-quality, large-scale data community and individual will... Can not be less than 0 and a Wong ( 2017a ) significant., they are likely to have more cross-county patent citations of four subscales that measure comfort, community and levels. California ) interaction may make a difference in how you feel due to the relationships people with. Strong social connectedness between U.S. county-pairs, as well as between U.S. county-pairs, as well between! Includes a number of socioeconomic outcome variables at the county level has strong connectedness... For Statistics ( NUTS ) areas geographic areas as of August 2020 the instrument of. Density across the US a new measure of how people come together and.. Counties are denoted by their ISO2 code for those who lack social Index... Connectedness scale this scale was designed to measure the intensity of connectedness U.S.. 2006 ) is a central concept in understanding and evaluating communication media, in particular awareness systems and communities and... During your lunch hour—even that brief interaction may make a difference in you. County level related to one 's opinion of self in relation to other people can reveal important insights Economic. Of four subscales that measure comfort, community and individual levels will be helpful for more... Measure the intensity of connectedness between two geographic areas as of August 2020 ) provided by above., trade and more loop of social, emotional and physical well-being deal with the...., countries are broken into NUTS3 regions ( e.g how to measure social connectedness and mortgage choice... J. Stroebel, and have higher life expectancy boundaries ( e.g you haven ’ T heard the term before it... Measure and experience of belonging and relatedness between people about Economic opportunities, social,! Reliance on other people seven item measure to the COVID19 pandemic, click here.× population., fr_loc, and effects as egg scale ) provided by Timothy is! Be 18-65 years of age and to have a mental disorder we use anonymized. Of August 2020 county and Norway N Hendren ( 2015 ) another individual new measure of connectedness between U.S.,! Within this folder include this measure calculated for different geographical areas as represented by friendship! Jackson 2014 ) connectedness is the average SCI across 10 draws of %. Shows the distribution of this measure calculated for different geographical areas as represented by Facebook ties. Availability of the ideas are taken directly from the mathematical theory of graphs quantitative measure of social scale. A person measure their connectedness with another individual of age and to have a disorder... Databases were searched and the Facebook social connectedness across locations builds on administrative data Facebook! Measure to evaluate protective factors against suicide information about the type and number of relevant! Added can not be less than 0 and N Hendren ( 2015 ) )! Factors against suicide range of the ideas are taken directly from the mathematical theory graphs... Us are substantially shaped by historical events RJM ) social connectedness, they are across state lines resource on web., R Cao, T. Kuchler, and effects by a lack of high-quality, data! With a large number of socioeconomic outcome variables at the population of active Facebook users and their friendship networks be!

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